The Hay Fever Survival Guide: Symptoms, Treatments, and Best Practices

June 3, 2024

What Exactly is Hay Fever?

Hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis, is an allergic reaction to airborne substances such as pollen. The immune system mistakenly identifies these harmless particles as threats, triggering a series of reactions aimed at eliminating them. This involves the release of histamines and other chemicals, which cause inflammation and symptoms typical of allergies.

The main culprit behind hay fever is pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds. These particles are tiny and lightweight, making them easy to inhale. When they enter the nose, they bind to specific antibodies on the surface of immune cells, known as mast cells. This interaction leads to the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. As a result, the blood vessels in the nasal passages dilate, and mucous membranes swell, producing the characteristic symptoms of hay fever.

In addition to pollen, other airborne allergens like dust mites, animal dander, and mould can also cause similar symptoms, though these are typically classified under perennial allergic rhinitis rather than seasonal hay fever.

Symptoms of Hay Fever

Hay fever symptoms can vary depending on the type of pollen you are allergic to and the severity of your allergic response. They generally include:

  • Frequent sneezing
  • Runny or blocked nose
  • Itchy, red, or watery eyes (allergic conjunctivitis)
  • Itchy throat, mouth, nose, and ears
  • Cough caused by postnasal drip
  • Fatigue and sleep disturbances due to nasal congestion and other symptoms

Types of Hay Fever

Hay fever can be categorised based on the type of pollen that triggers the allergic reaction:

  • Tree Pollen Hay Fever: Typically occurs in early spring when trees such as birch, oak, and cedar release pollen.
  • Grass Pollen Hay Fever: Common in late spring and early summer, primarily caused by grasses like ryegrass and timothy.
  • Weed Pollen Hay Fever: Generally happens from late summer to early autumn, with weeds like ragweed and nettle being common culprits.

Treatments for Hay Fever


Antihistamines are a common treatment for hay fever. They work by blocking histamine, a chemical responsible for many allergy symptoms. There are several types of antihistamines:

  • First-Generation Antihistamines: Examples include diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine. These are effective but often cause drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness, and blurred vision.
  • Second-Generation Antihistamines: Examples include loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec), and fexofenadine (Allegra). These are less likely to cause drowsiness and are preferred for daytime use. Side effects are usually mild but can include headache, dry mouth, and nausea.

Kenalog Injections

Kenalog injections contain triamcinolone acetonide, a corticosteroid that reduces inflammation and immune responses. This treatment provides long-lasting relief from hay fever symptoms, often effective for the entire pollen season. It requires just one 15-minute appointment and offers numerous benefits over daily medications, such as no drowsiness and cost savings. Kenalog injections can significantly improve the quality of life for those who suffer from severe hay fever symptoms.


Decongestants can help reduce nasal congestion. They are available in oral forms (like pseudoephedrine) and nasal sprays (like oxymetazoline). However, nasal sprays should not be used for more than a few days to avoid rebound congestion, where nasal congestion worsens when the medication is stopped. Common side effects of oral decongestants include increased blood pressure, insomnia, and nervousness.

Eye Drops

Eye drops containing antihistamines or decongestants can relieve itchy, red, or watery eyes. Some eye drops combine both for maximum relief. It’s important to use these products as directed to avoid potential side effects such as eye irritation or dryness.

Nasal Corticosteroids

Nasal corticosteroid sprays are highly effective for treating hay fever symptoms. They reduce inflammation in the nasal passages, providing relief from congestion, sneezing, and runny nose. Examples include fluticasone (Flonase), mometasone (Nasonex), and budesonide (Rhinocort). These sprays are typically used daily and may take a few days to start working. Side effects can include nasal irritation, nosebleeds, and, rarely, an increased risk of nasal infections.


Immunotherapy, or allergy shots, involves regular injections of small amounts of allergen extracts. This treatment aims to desensitise the immune system to allergens over time, reducing the severity of allergic reactions. It can be a long-term solution for those with severe hay fever and involves a buildup phase of weekly injections followed by a maintenance phase of monthly injections. Side effects can include localised reactions at the injection site and, in rare cases, systemic allergic reactions.

Eating Local Honey

Some believe that eating local honey can help build up tolerance to pollen, as it contains small amounts of local pollen. The theory is that consuming honey produced by bees in your area may gradually desensitise your immune system to the pollen in the environment. However, scientific evidence supporting this is limited, and it may not provide significant relief for everyone. While it may offer some benefits for certain individuals, it is not a guaranteed solution and should not be relied upon as the sole treatment for hay fever.

Additional Tips for Managing Hay Fever and Pollen

  • Keep windows closed during high pollen days to prevent pollen from entering your home.
  • Shower and change clothes after being outdoors to remove pollen from your body and clothing.
  • Use an air purifier with a HEPA filter to reduce indoor pollen levels.
  • Avoid outdoor activities in the early morning when pollen counts are highest.
  • Wear sunglasses and a hat when outdoors to protect your eyes and face from pollen.
  • Regularly clean and vacuum your home to reduce indoor allergens.
  • Apply vaseline to your outer and inner nostrils to help catch pollen


Hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, can significantly impact your quality of life, but with the right knowledge and management strategies, you can enjoy a symptom-free season. Understanding the triggers, such as tree, grass, and weed pollen, helps tailor your approach to relief.

Effective management includes lifestyle adjustments like keeping windows closed, showering after outdoor activities, and using air purifiers. Medical treatments such as antihistamines, decongestants, eye drops, and nasal corticosteroids offer various degrees of relief, with second-generation antihistamines being preferred for daytime use due to fewer side effects.

For long-term relief, consider immunotherapy or the highly effective Kenalog injections offered at Cosmetic Avenue. With just one 15-minute appointment, Kenalog injections provide season-long relief without the daily hassle of medications.

Explore different options to find what works best for you and consult healthcare professionals for personalised advice. Don’t let hay fever control your life. For more information on our hay fever injections, visit our treatment page.

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